Glossary

A B C D E F G H L M N P S T U V W Y

 

A

Antimicrobial
Destroys or suppresses the growth of micro-organisms

Antistatic
Reduces or eliminates the build up of static electricity

Axminster
See Style Types

B

Berber
See Style Types

Binding
A strip sewn onto the edge of a carpet, that is used to protect or add strength

Broadloom
Carpet that comes in rolls wider than 6 feet. Usual widths are 4 and 5 metres

Bleeding
The loss of colour or a colour run.  Commonly occurs if carpet or rug is allowed to get wet or from improper dying

Blend
A yarn containing two or more fibres

Bulked Continuous Filament (BCF)
Yarn bundles that are formed from continuous strands of fibre and then texturised to increase overall bulk

C

Carpet Dying
The process of dying carpet by spraying or printing a colour or pattern of colours directly onto the face of the carpet. It can also be referred to as “continuous dying”

Construction
The method in which a product is manufactured

Cropping
The process whereby carpet is passed under rotating blades to shear the top off of the pile

Crumb Rubber
See underlay

Crushed Pile
When areas of carpet experience heavy traffic or furniture the pile may become crushed and flatten. In some situations this can be a permanent condition

Cut Pile
A smooth finish created by cutting off the tops of the wool loops. The cut loops are then twisted to make tufts of yarn, creating a soft even surface. Also known as “velour” or “velvet” pile

Cut and Loop
See Style Types

D

Delamination
The separation of the secondary or felt backing from the primary backing.  Can be caused by poor adhesion

Density
Describes how tightly yarn is stitched in a carpet

Door Bars
Door bars provide a neat finish and attractive edging to doorways and other unprotected edges. They also ensure that areas of high traffic are kept seam free for safety, and protect them from wear and tear. Usually made from wood, aluminium or brass, they are sometimes called cover strips

Double Stick
An installation method where the underlay is stuck to the subfloor. The flooring is then stuck to the underlay.

E

Extrusion
The process of forcing synthetics through small holes in a spinneret to create single filament yarns

F

Felt Backing
A layer of felt applied to the secondary backing to aid comfort

Fibre
The material used to make carpet yarn which can be synthetic or natural

Filament
One continuous strand of carpet fibre

Floating Floor
A laminate or real wood floor that is joined together and not fixed down

Frieze
A type of carpet that is made from tightly twisted cut pile that curls over at the ends. This gives the floor a rough-textured, knobbly look. Frieze is highly durable and hides footprints and other marks well

G

Gauge
A term used in knitting and tufting that measures the distance in between two needle points. It is measured in fractions of an inch.

Gripper
A wooden strip used for carpet installation. A gripper contains 2 to 3 rows of pins and is fixed firmly to the floor close to the walls, with the pins angled toward the walls. The carpet is then stretched and secured on top

H

Handle
Describes the way carpet or other floor surfaces feel to the touch

Heat Setting
The process of using heat to set the pile in carpet. This allows the carpet to retain its twist or curl over time

 

L

Laminate
See laminate

Level Loop
Carpet that has uncut loops which are about the same height, making a level surface

Loop Pile
Carpet that has uncut loops which can be tufted or woven. Also known as round wire, it generally holds up better than other piles under heavy traffic

Lustre
The quality of brightness, gloss, or sheen

M

Matting
The appearance of matting or crushed carpet generally visible in areas with high traffic

N

Nylon
The generic name used for fibres produced from the linear polymer polyamide. It is a synthetic material that is fade, stain, and heat resistant

P

Pattern Repeat
The distance measured before a design starts again

Pile
Also known as the face of the carpet, it consists of the yarn that makes the surface of carpet. It is found in loops, cut loops, and a combination of both

Pile Height
Height is determined by measuring the distance between the primary backing of the carpet to the tip of the tufts. In general, carpet with a shorter pile height tends to hold up better to wear and tear

Pile Weight
The total weight of the yarn used.  Measured in ounces per square yard or grammes per square metre

Pilling
A condition that occurs when carpet fibres from different tufts knot together forming “masses” or “pills” Generally these can be cut with scissors

Plush
A luxury carpet that is smooth and velvety. It is normally made from a cut pile

Ply
Single ends of carpet yarn that are twisted together to form plied carpet.  It is the measurement of the yarn’s thickness e.g. 3 ply

Polyamide
See Style Types

Polyester
A synthetic material that is often used in carpet yarn. It is not as resilient as nylon, but is fairly fade and stain resistant.

Polypropylene
Polypropylene is a fibre that is moisture resistant and therefore inherently stain resistant

Primary Backing
In a tufted carpet it is the backing into which the tufts are inserted

PU (Polyurethane)
See underlay

S

Saxony
See Style Types

Screen Printing
A common method used to colour carpet.  It involves applying colour through multiple silk screens to carpet to achieve the desired look

Seaming
A process that involves joining carpet seams by applying adhesive to the carpet edges. Seaming can help prevent your carpet from fraying

Seams
The join where pieces of carpet or flooring come together

Secondary Backing
A second backing that is laminated onto the primary backing of carpet to increase shape retention

Shading
Describes what appears to be a change in the colour of a carpet, but is actually due to light reflecting on the carpet pile

Shearing
The process of removing any loose ends or fibres sticking out of the carpet after tufting

Shedding
Loose carpet fibres that have fallen into the carpet pile during manufacturing and have come loose on the surface after installation. The loose fibres generally disappear after vacuuming a few times

Sisal
A type of carpet made from natural plant fibres that gives a woven rug look

Staple Fibre
Small pieces of fibre that can be converted into yarn using a yarn spinning process

Static
The positive electrical charge that builds up on the shoe soles after walking over a carpet

Stitch
The act of making a tuft in carpeting

Stitch Rate
A measurement of how many tufts of yarn are in a certain amount of carpet. It is usually measured in tufts per inch. Good quality is 7-8 tufts per inch, while 3-4 tufts per inch is lower quality

Sub Floor
The primary floor that the new floor covering is to be laid on

Synthetic
Made of chemical, man–made products instead of natural materials

T

Textured
A type of carpet with a two-tone appearance made from cut piles with alternating twists

Tuft
Loops or cut loops of yarn that form the surface layer of carpeting

Tufted
Carpet created by weaving loops or cut loops of yarn onto a primary backing

Tufting
A process where tufts, or clumps of yarn are grouped together on a carpet backing. The result is a surface consisting of looped and / or cut ends

Twist
The winding of each individual tuft. Generally, the tighter a tuft is twisted the more durable the carpet

U

Underlay
See underlay

V

Vinyl
See vinyl

W

Warp
The lengthwise threads in a woven carpet

Weft
The widthwise threads in a woven carpet

Wilton
See Style Types

Wool
A luxurious natural fibre used to make carpets, usually derived from the coat of a sheep or goat

Woven
Carpet made on a weaving loom where backing threads and pile are woven at the same time, creating strong anchors for the tufts.  Axminster and Wilton are both well known woven carpets

Y

Yarn Dyeing
A method of dying yarn before it has been sewn onto the primary backing. It is also known as pre-dyeing

Yarn Dyeing-Beck
A method of dying yarn after it has been sewn onto the primary backing

Yarn Ply
The amount of single yarns (at least two or more) twisted together to form plied yarn